In Asia perms are done using hot-clamps , it kinda looks like the permmachine from the 20’s.
Perms are invented by a German haidresser named Karl Nessler, he lived in Todtnau. He used to experiment on his girlfiend / wive and 2 times she lost all her hair because of burning. Because the old proces used very hot clamps and harsch chemicals.
After a few years the perm-machine’s found their way to the salon, and a person wanting a perm was connected tot that machine for some time.
But in Asia they developed an new kind of permmachine, computertrolled and the heatclmaps are of ceramic materials to prevent cooking the hair to hard, these perm machines are now calles “Digital perm”. Because there is a lot of control over the whole permproces because the heating is computer controllend etc. It seems that these Digital perms give very soft big wavy volume and the damage to the hair is less then done the “normal” cold way.
When I see a photo like here above I kinda evy the woman, I would want such thing… getting a perm and not having the possibility to walk away.